Ink Dating is done in two primary forms. The first ink dating method is the static approach, which determines when the ink being examined was manufactured. The second ink dating method is the dynamic approach, this method is to determine when the writing occurred, or in simple terms, how long the ink has been on the paper. The ink dating static approach is typically more useful as the difference between the date on the document and the present time increases. Several different tests exist in this form of ink dating. These ink dating methods include the comparison of the examined ink to a known library of standards, commonly called the library approach, the detection of chemical date tags placed in the ink purposefully by the manufacturer, commonly called the date tag method, and also the determination of the type of ink writing instrument used. The determination of the type of writing instrument is probably the oldest method of ink dating. This ink dating method primarily involves microscopic examinations and can also incorporate some basic chemical solubility testing. Some examinations can be performed on fountain pens to determine type of nib, type of ink and the first date of introduction of each of these. However, since this is a very small portion of the actual type of cases seen, we will concentrate primarily on more recent developments.
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The visual appearance of inks is only one clue to their composition. Sometimes two inks can look identical to the naked eye but further tests may be able to distinguish between them. Where possible non-destructive tests are used. For example inks can be examined using infra red or ultraviolet reflectance at various wavelengths or using visible light but examining emissions from the ink in the infra red area of the spectrum infra red luminescence.
Our examiners use an instrument known as a VSC HR to carry out non-destructive specialised lighting examinations. Inks may also be distinguished by other more complex chemical tests but these are likely to be destructive to some extent.
This review paper covers the forensic-relevant literature in Most of the ink dating research concerned pen inks, yet Von der Kall V. and al .
There’s more to a piece of paper than meets the eye – and paper analysis can find it. This specialized investigative process extracts historical and physical evidence from documents, photographs, art prints, books, and other paper-based objects. These tools are used, alone or in combination, to characterize the properties of paper in a number of ways.
For example, a qualitative analysis shows what materials are in the paper, fiber, ink; quantitative analysis measures how much. Chemical analysis evaluates composition and pH; physical analysis measures gloss, strength, color. Organic analysis detects carbon-based traces of plants and organisms; while inorganic analysis identifies mineral evidence in pigment and ink. Each of these approaches provides a set of facts about an artifact’s condition, age or origins.
The method of choice for any given situation is determined by several factors, including: the objectives of the investigator authentication, preservation, personal curiosity ; the relative value of the paper historically, legally, personally ; and whether the information gained from destructive testing will outweigh the loss of material samples. The authenticity of the mysterious Vinland Map was debated for decades. In , a scrap of map parchment was analyzed by a destructive, organic method radiocarbon dating.
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Two main approaches can be used for determining the age of an ink: indirect dating and direct dating. Indirect dating is based on the chemical analysis of an ink followed by comparison with known samples in a reference collection. The collection should contain information about the inks including the market introduction dates. This approach may allow for an anachronism to be detected.
The second concept is based on measuring ink components that change with age. The analysis of solvents in ballpoint inks may be a useful parameter for determining the age of ink on paper.
Ink analysis can play an important role in the forensic investigation of such cases. Modern writing inks are complex mixtures consisting of multiple dyes or.
Follow me:. About the Expert Offices: San Luis Obispo, CA-GFS is a private forensic lab, specializing in ink dating, forensic ink dating, ink age, questioned documents, fraud, forgery, art age determination, ink, paper, handwriting, fingerprints, counterfeiting, piracy, crime scenes, Daubert and court preparation. Full service document laboratory. We offer a first rate and on-call response to any investigative situation that you may encounter.
Our commitment is to provide clients with effective, timely, cost effective services by use of experienced forensic and investigative teams. We are a proud firm. We have successfully completed a myriad of forensic examinations and investigations for our clients, worldwide, for the past 35 years. Stewart has worked for the U. Government as a forensic scientist for over 25 years. During his career he has worked on many notable cases to include; the Unabomber, numerous accused Nazi war criminals, e.
John Demjanjuk, a.
Ink Chromatography and Forensics STEM Kit
In this article, Forensic Document Examiner, Mark Songer provides an overview of the cases where forensic document examination can be applied, the techniques and technologies used, and standards that exist in the field. In , an intruder broke into the home of an elderly couple living in California. The couple was robbed, beaten, and forced to write checks from their personal account before being murdered.
The suspect denied having anything to do with the murders.
In this article, Forensic Document Examiner & Handwriting Expert, Mark Songer Relative ink dating is most commonly employed in document.
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PAPER FORENSICS & AGE DATING
One of the downsides of this however is that client expectations on what is possible in certain areas of forensic science often greatly exceed what can actually be done. Usually the enquiry involves a signature on a will or a commercial document. The signature itself may not be in dispute but the actual date of signing may be critical to the resolution of the matter.
The consultants found through this page may provide reports on forged checks, signatures, questioned documents, ink analysis, and forensic ink dating, as well.
There are typically two different forensic methods for ink dating. With this method the forensic analysis determines the components in the ink, compares them against a library of standards and then allows an opinion regarding the first date that particular ink was manufactured commercially available. The dynamic approach is very useful in determining if a pen ink was placed on a document on its purported date, i.
There are only a handful of forensic scientists capable of performing these tests and laboratories equipped with the proper tools. The proposed tests are minimally invasive, the latter two involving the placement of pinhole perforations in the text, paper and signatures on the Original Document. The pinholes themselves are not typically easily visible unless the document is held up to light, and the testing has no negative effect on handwriting analysis.
All of the proposed testing follows Court approved testing methods, e. Under appropriate circumstances, the Court may order destructive testing of all or some portion of the physical item in question.
Questioned material may consist of identification cards, contracts, wills, titles and deeds, seals, stamps, bank checks, handwritten correspondence, machine-generated documents such as those from photocopiers, fax machines, and printers , currency and electronic documents. In some circumstances, graffiti and digital signatures may be examined; however, the client should be aware that the examination of these types of evidence can be problematic. Even documents that were shredded or burned may prove useful if reconstructed.
In digital documents, evidence could even be culled from the metadata of electronic signature files, providing information such as who the author is and when the document was written.
as forensic document examination, patent law, ink differentiation and dating, forensic handwriting analysis, digital printing and imaging, and other such issues,.
Expert witnesses who are available to consult and testify regarding ink dating may be found here. The consultants found through this page may provide reports on forged checks, signatures, questioned documents, ink analysis, and forensic ink dating, as well as expert witness testimony on these and related issues. You may limit your search for Ink Dating expert witnesses to a specific area by selecting a state from the drop down box.
Featured Experts. Document examinations are provided in the following areas: handwriting, typewriter, photocopies, Global Forensic Services, LLC formerly Stewart Forensic Consultants, LLC is an independent laboratory and consulting firm providing investigation, forensic and litigation support to individuals, companies and firms. Our services include ink age, handwriting, ForensisGroup, Inc. The Expert of Experts.
Forensic Document Examination
But this technique is also able to overcome other stumbling blocks relating to the amount of ink deposited when writing and the type of paper used, as these variables hamper the dating of a document by means of traditional methods. What is more, the new technique reduces the number of punctures needed to analyse the writing on a document to just one. Determining the age of a document to find out whether it is authentic is a task influenced by the type of paper on which it has been written, the pressure of the stroke -the amount of ink deposited when the writing was done- or even the technique used.
Until now, document dating methods have been able to indicate whether the writing was relatively new less than 90 days or older over two years , yet this chronological accuracy is insufficient in certain cases, above all in judicial ones.
Ink, as well. Our services, and handwriting experts. In reaching a particularly challenging forensic. It tends to identify. Relative dating of.
This may be due to aging, illness, injury,emotional changes or many other causes. For this reason examples that were created within two or three years of the questioned document are best for comparison. There can never be too many documents for comparison. There can be too few. Use of objective techniques rather than subjective techniques is valuable for determining when a document was written.
In a case involving whether a questioned signature was made by the person whose name was signed, I determined the person did sign the letter. By using quantitative techniques I determined the letter was signed recently rather than several years earlier according to the date on the letter. This implied the letter was drafted to fabricate evidence in the case.
When the opposing side was presented with the evidence they immediately settled the case. The age of documents may also be determined by examination of the paper, ink, toner and other attributes of the document. Some of these examinations require engaging specialists such as ink chemists, paper experts and others. Learn the Age of Documents.
Someone trying to sell a baseball allegedly signed by Babe Ruth in the early s, or pass off documents as older than they really are, is up against a serious foe: The United States Secret Service. You might know that the Secret Service is on guard against counterfeit currency. You might not know, however, that it also keeps a one-of-a-kind International Ink Library with more than 11, specific writing ink fingerprints on hand.
The ink library handles a variety of cases, from threat letters — the Secret Service protects not only the President but also other high-profile government officials — and ransom letters, baseballs, and phony documents where someone is “trying to obscure the truth in some way,” says Joseph Stephens, ink library document analyst.
Key words: Forensic Science; Questioned Document; age of document; printers. tool for the dating of writing ink, Annual Meeting of the American Academy of.
Ink, as well. Our services, and handwriting experts. In reaching a particularly challenging forensic. It tends to identify. Relative dating of documents. Crawford, and security solutions that may be undertaken utilising such as well. An expert. Two dna. Author information: university of offset ink dating expert witnesses may provide dna.
Forensics Laboratory Testing
There are four major approaches each approach is a group of methods used for dating inks on documents:. Other ink entries are not necessary for comparison. Aginsky has developed the SET as a result of many years of research of the ink aging methodology developed and published by Dr. Antonio A. Cantu in the s. The second ink dating approach analyzes the chemical composition of inks on a contested document with the aim to determine whether these inks as well as other materials used to produce the document — paper, inkjet printing ink, toner, stamp pad ink, etc.
two samples of ink. Identifying ink formulas as to their manufacturer or time of manufacture as well as performing ink dating examinations are beyond the.
Have questions? Give us a call IPS Testing is able to determine likely age ranges for paper products by using wood fibers, pulping chemistry, paper additives and surface treatments to serve as dating markers. Our experienced fiber science team, led by Walter Rantanen, has developed an international reputation for paper and document forensics. While exact age dating of papers is not possible, the process is often able to exclude samples as being made in the time period of question.
Walter Rantanen has developed a large database of paper with known ages. He has also worked closely with Paul Messier and the Museum of Modern Art to develop a similar database for photographic papers. Typical paper forensic services that IPS provides to its U. Rantanen examined a large number of photos that were carefully dated to determine what fiber species and pulping processes were used from the early s through the late s.
If you would like to learn more about this case, you may read Richard B. We have also been asked to date service records from the WWI time frame that also turned out to be counterfeit. In addition, as experts in foreign currency and counterfeit analysis, IPS has trained members of the U.